What are the functions of management? Explain with illustrations

Management involves several functions that are essential for the effective and efficient operation of an organization.

Get the full solved assignment PDF of BRL-104 of 2023-24 session now.

The classical functions of management, often attributed to Henri Fayol, are commonly recognized as:

  1. Planning:
  • Illustration: Imagine a retail manager planning for the upcoming holiday season. This involves setting objectives, determining sales targets, deciding on promotional strategies, and outlining the steps to ensure sufficient inventory and staffing during peak times.
  1. Organizing:
  • Illustration: In a manufacturing company, organizing entails structuring the workforce, defining roles and responsibilities, establishing reporting relationships, and arranging resources to achieve the organizational goals. This might involve creating departments, teams, or divisions.
  1. Staffing:
  • Illustration: Consider a tech startup hiring software developers. Staffing involves recruiting, training, and retaining the right people for the organization. It includes activities such as job analysis, recruitment, selection, orientation, and ongoing development.
  1. Directing:
  • Illustration: In a call center, directing involves guiding employees to achieve specific performance goals. This includes giving instructions, providing leadership, motivating staff, and resolving conflicts to ensure that tasks are carried out effectively.
  1. Coordinating:
  • Illustration: Imagine a project manager coordinating the launch of a new product. Coordinating involves harmonizing activities, aligning resources, and ensuring that various elements come together seamlessly. It might involve scheduling, communication, and collaboration.
  1. Controlling:
  • Illustration: A financial manager monitors the budget and financial performance of a company. Controlling involves comparing actual results with planned outcomes, identifying variances, and taking corrective action to ensure that organizational objectives are met.

These functions are often depicted as a continuous process known as the management process or cycle. For example, after planning, the manager organizes resources, then staffs and directs individuals to carry out the plan. During this execution, there is continuous coordination, and control mechanisms are in place to monitor progress and make adjustments as needed. The functions are interrelated, and effective management requires a balance and integration of these elements to achieve organizational success.